Saturday, March 14, 2020
The Best IB English Study Guide and Notes for SL/HL SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips Are you taking IB English and need some help with your studying? No need to reread all the books and poems you covered in class! This study guide is for IB English A students (students in IB English A: literature SL/HL, IB English A: language and literature SL/HL, or IB English literature and performance SL) who are looking for additional guidance on writing their commentaries or essays. I've compiled this IB English study guide using the best free materials available for this class. Use it to supplement your classwork and help you prepare for exams throughout the school year. WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s Tested on the IB English Exams? The IB English courses are unique from other IB classes in that they don't have a very rigid curriculum with exact topics to cover. Instead, your class (or most likely your teacher) is given the freedom to choose what works (from a list of prescribed authors and a list of prescribed literature in translation from IBO) to teach. The exams reflect that freedom. On the exam for all English A courses, youÃ¢â¬â¢re asked to write an essay (or essays) that incorporates examples from the novels you read. YouÃ¢â¬â¢re also asked to interpret text (typically poetry, though sometimes an excerpt from a book) that you read for the first time the day of the exam. The exact number of questions varies by the course, but the types of questions asked on each all fall into the two categories listed above. WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s Offered in This Guide? In this guide, I have compiled materials to help teach you how to interpret poetry and how to structure your essay/commentary. I've also provided notes on several books typically taught in IB English SL/HL. This should be all of the material you need to study for your IB exam and to study for your in-class exams. How to Interpret Poetry Guides Many people struggle the most with the poetry material, and if you're one of those people,we have some resources specifically for making poetry questions easier. Here is afull explanation of how to interpret poetry for the IB examwith term definitions, descriptions of types of poems, and examples.This is another great resource withpoetry terms defined on Ã¢â¬Å"flashcardsÃ¢â¬ , and you can test yourself on the site by clicking "play". How to Write Your Essay Guide If you're not sure how to write your essay, here's a guide towhat you essay should look like for the IB English SL/HL papers.This guide gives advice on how you should structure your essay and what you should include in it. It also contains a few sample questions so you can get a better idea of the types of prompts you can expect to see. IB English Book Notes Based on the list of prescribed authors and literaturefrom IBO, I picked some of the most popular books to teach and provided links to notes on those works. What's important to remember from these books is key moments, themes, motifs, and symbols, so you can discuss them on your in-class tests and the IB papers. Agamemnon Anna Karenina Antigone Crime and Punishment Death of a Salesman A Doll's House Don Quixote Dr. Zhivago Hamlet Heart of Darkness Jane Eyre King Lear Love in the Time of Cholera Macbeth One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich Romeo Juliet Sense and Sensibility The Stranger The Sun Also Rises Waiting for Godot The Best Study Practices for IB English Hopefully, this guide will be an asset to you throughout the school year for in-class quizzes as well as at the end of the year for the IB exam. Taking practice tests is also important, and you should also look at our other article for access to FREE IB English past papersto help you familiarize yourself with the types of questions asked by the IBO (and IÃ¢â¬â¢m sure your teacher will ask similar questions on your quizzes). Make sure you're reading all of the novels and poetry assigned to you in class, and take detailed notes on them. This will help you remember key themes and plot points so you don't find yourself needing to reread a pile of books right before the exam. Finally, keep up with the material you learn in class,and don't fall behind.Reading several novels the week before the IB exam wonÃ¢â¬â¢t be much help. You need to have time and let the material sink in over the course of the class, so youÃ¢â¬â¢re able to remember it easily on the day of the IB exam. WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s Next? Want some morestudy materials for IB English?Our guide to IB English past papers has links to every free and official past IB English paper available! Are you hoping to squeeze in some extra IB classes? Learn about the IB courses offered onlineby reading our guide. Not sure where you want to go to college? Check out our guide to finding your target school.Also, figure out your target SAT score or target ACT score. Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points?We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now:
Wednesday, February 26, 2020
Business strategy - Essay Example Careful analysis of the case study on Honda Motor Company shows that the company was never driven by the strategic purpose to survive in the domestic marketplace of Japan; rather, the company always thrived for excellence in the international marketplace. For example, in the initial years, the company realised they needed to manufacture efficient, lighter and powerful engines which could not only meet the demand of local customers but also attract international customers (refer to the Honda case study). SWOT analysis in the appendix 3 is showing that technological capabilities are the major strength of Honda and the company has used its strategic purpose to excel in international market. As mentioned in the PESTLE analysis done in Appendix 1, the Japanese government has created a significant amount of exchange restriction on Honda in order to prevent it from entering the USA market. In such circumstances, Honda has decided to increase penetration in the USA motorcycle market with its 50cc super cubs. The company targeted everyday Americans who want small capacity motorcycles and Honda was successful in catering to their demand. In the early 1960s, Honda used the export mode to penetrate in the automobile market of North America but in later years, the company decided to set manufacturing facilities in USA and decrease its export portfolio (by the end of 1996, total the American investment of Honda had touched $3.8 billion) (refer to the case study). The value chain and VRIN analysis done in Appendices 5 & 4 shows that technological resources have helped Honda to achieve competitive advantage in many cases. For example, the company has doubled its technological capabilities in the research and development section in North America, which has resulted in manufacturing Accord SE-i that is brilliant in performance but $10,000 cheaper than the competitorsÃ¢â¬â¢ car with the similar capacity (refer to the Honda case study). The strategic purpose of Honda can be unde rstood by analysing its organisational structure which reflects its mission, vision and value system. Honda has stated its value as Ã¢â¬Å"proceed always with ambition and youthfulnessÃ¢â¬ (refer to the Honda case study). Senior executives and the chairman of the company prefer to work together in manufacturing units in order to create the sense of belongingness among workers and ensure that the company is delivering technologically superior and quality products to customer. Such level of integrity and resilience has helped the company to revert the negative situation when export of cars from Japan to USA also dropped from 3.4 million to 1.7 million in 1992 in comparison to 1987 (refer to Appendix 6). Although the road to enter the international market was not an easy ride for Honda because the company faced a diminishing trend in demand in the USA market in the initial years, but later on product innovation such as its 50cc motor cycles, light duty trucks (T-360), sports truck ( S-500), CVCC engine (compound vortex controlled combustion) (Frank, 2003), or development of SED (sales, production, engineering and development) system has helped the company to become one of the market leaders in both the domestic and international markets (refer to the Hon
Monday, February 10, 2020
There should be restrictions on SNAP (foodstamps) benefits - Essay Example This important aspect of development serves a large population of the United States, who are in dire need. However, while some people are in support of the program for its usefulness, I feel that the benefits should be limited. A number of people enrolling for the program do not need it, which surges the national expenditure. This creates a proportional surge in taxes to cater for the program, which is a burden to other taxpayers. To begin with, some people feel that the Supplementary Nutrition Assistance Program is not of great help to the low-income people. For example, traditionally, there are three basic needs in a human life. These include food, clothing, and shelter. Apparently, people consider education as a basic need for human living. Consequentially, the government only provides foodstuff in the SNAP program, whereas it should also be providing other basic needs like education. Therefore, the government should be considerate to the low-income families, since they do not have the sufficient resources for the stated basic needs. Owing to this, the government should initiate another approach, where the situation can be corrected in the shortest time possible. It is stated that the life expectancy rate and standards of life improve when people have access to quality education, high quality healthcare and a low cost of living. Apparently, giving the low-income families SNAP is not enhancing their entire life as it is only solving part of their problems. As such, many of the low-income families do not afford education for their children. This leads to low literacy rates in the low-income families, which in turn leads to a large disparity between the rich and the poor people in the society. Therefore, the program is not of much help to the low-income families, especially when looking at the other basic needs. On the contrary, Supplementary Nutrition Assistance Program caters for
Thursday, January 30, 2020
Geography Essay Essay International trade is the movement of goods, services and ideas between countries. It is based on a country specialising in producing a surplus of the goods it can produce most efficiently in order to gain a competitive advantage. Australia trades with over two hundred countries and contributes one percent to world trade. Trade is a vital component of AustraliaÃ¢â¬â¢s economic prosperity. Reasons for international trade include employment, business and economic growth. For many years, Britain was AustraliaÃ¢â¬â¢s major trading partner but since it joined the European Union in 1973, we have increased our trading links with countries in the Asia-Pacific region. Advantages in trading products include Australia selling coal to China and Japan in high prices while in return Australia imports cheap toys produced by China and high-value products such as cars made in Japan. Reasons for international trade include employment, business and economic growth. Culture is all the knowledge and values shared by a society. The advantages of trade towards culture include a variety of products, multiculturism and offers lifestyle choice. A variety of products leads to a large variety in products and more freedom in choosing products. Multiculturalism welcomes and comforts individuals from different nations in Australia and broadens the Australian trade market. Lifestyle choices are vastly improved with exported items from different nations. In saying that, there are still many disadvantages from international trading on culture. Some impacts include competition with local markets and inferior products. Successful competition with local businesses can eventually lead to loss of jobs and broadening of export products. Economy is the system of production, distribution and consumption. Australia has had billions of dollars of economic growth since its beginning of international trade. Advantages to the economy via trade are employment, higher economic growth and source of income. Employment has been increasing in exporting industries and workers. During the tariff increase in the period 1974-1984, employment in the textiles and footwear sector decreased by 50000. The countries involved in trade have experienced rising living standards, increased incomes and economic growth. However, disadvantages still prevail to the economy. Increased domestic economic instability from international trade cycles as economy becomes dependant on global markets. For example, recession in China leads to decreased demand for Australias exports, leading to falling export incomes, lower gdp , lower incomes etc. Exploitation of labour is common in countries with a large population such as China, Japan and India. They are paid extremely low wages for hard work. Geopolitical is the combination of geographic and political factors influencing or delineating a country or regions. The advantages to Australia from trade are that it strengthens ties with other countries, producing less risk of war. It also improves border security as friendly, neighbouring countries such as New Zealand can provide border security for us. Trading also allows cooperation between countries on issues regarding asylum seekers and refugees. Islands off Australia have supported and welcomed the thousands of asylum seekers that seek refuge. Disadvantages to the geopolicy of Australia through trade include disagreements/ trade disputes between nations if obligatory roles are not full filled. Some countries can provide unfair access to trade markets. China has allowed Australia to be the first accessor to many of their exports. In conclusion, Australia has received great economic growth, multiculturism and friendly relations through its cultural, economic and geopolitical ties with other nations through trade. But we have also had inferior product, exploitation of labour and products and disagreements through such trade.
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
Politics and Religious Faith in the Media On January 29, 3003, thousands of Americans were seated in front of their television screens, eagerly and somberly watching the man on the screen. During the manÃ¢â¬â¢s speech, the words Ã¢â¬Å"ThereÃ¢â¬â¢s power, wonder-working powerÃ¢â¬ were brought forth, and it was those very words which have turned heads, and incurred opinions, articles, and editorials across the nation. Had this man been a preacher there is no doubt that his comments would have gone un-criticized. However, this man was not a preacher, but rather George Bush, the President of the United States of America. His comment did not escape notice nor criticism, and has become highlighted in the recent media focus on politics and religious faith. Just a week ago Newsweek published a cover story on Ã¢â¬Å"Bush and GodÃ¢â¬ , and TIME magazine, USA Today, and The New York Times have all published articles and editorials concerning this topic. In response to the recent media coverage, Americans are sitting up as well, taking more careful notice, and often voicing their own opinions. As the journalists and newscaster are questioning to what extent personal beliefs are affecting political performance and agenda, I find myself questioning the journalists and newscasters themselves. How are they presenting this topic, and how are these presentations influencing the publics understanding of the truth of the situation? Is it possible to report on a topic as controversial and complex as religion and politics in such a way that is not biased or catered to popular opinion? Through my research I have found material to suggest that the media, specifically magazines, newspapers, and on-line articles, are not clearly delineating between tho se who favor BushÃ¢â¬â¢s relig... ...nsorship.Ã¢â¬ Mass Politics: The Politics of Popular Culture. Ed. Daniel M. Shea. New York: Worth Publishers, Inc., 1999 Lampman, Jane. Ã¢â¬Å"New Scrutiny of role of religion in BushÃ¢â¬â¢s policies.Ã¢â¬ The Christian Science Monitor 17 March 2003: A1+ Fineman, Howard. Ã¢â¬Å"Bush and God.Ã¢â¬ Newsweek 10 March 2003: 76-84. Ã¢â¬Å"Silent Evangelical Support of BushÃ¢â¬â¢s Proposed War Against Iraq.Ã¢â¬ Morning Edition. Host Bob Edwards. Natl. Public Radio. WCAL, Northfield. 26 February, 2003. Religion in Politics. 19 & 20 March 2003. The Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life. http://pewforum.org/issues/display.php?IssueID=6. Gruener, Claude M. Letter. The New York Times. 14 March 2003 Ã¢â¬Å"Delivering the Good News.Ã¢â¬ MSNBC. Yourish, Karen. 19 March, 2003. http://www.msnbc.com/news/878520.asp Dr. Gary. Errant Skeptics. 19 March 2003. http://www.errantskeptics.org/Quotes_by_Presidents.htm
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
With each of these scenarios also give the type of employer, the history of the worker at that company, the incident which arose, why it was a clear violation of employer policy, and what would be the likely result of arbitration of this issue if the employee acknowledged his wrong doing but asked to keep his job. Explain the reasoning for our considered outcome. When an employer has to discipline a unionized employee there are four steps to the grievance (infraction) procedure. In the first step the employee is given the grievance in an informal oral manner so a quick resolution can be made, and before a written record is established. The second step in the grievance procedure is to present the grievance to the industrial relations representative or (IR). The IR representative is familiar with the unionÃ¢â¬â¢s contract and decides on a disciplinary action or if the grievance involves an employee discharge then the union will take it to step three. In step three the employee has union representation and the grievance is most likely settled at this step, if an agreement cannot be made then step four is the last chance to resolve the grievance or it goes to arbitration. Arbitration is a quasi-judicial process in which parties agree to submit unresolved disputes to a neutral third party for binding settlement. [ (Labor Relations, 10th Edition, 2009) ] (pg. 490). When an employee repeatedly breaks the rules and has been disciplined the union, employer, and employee write up a last chance agreement (LCA). This is an agreement drawn up by all parties stating that if the employee has another grievance violation within a certain amount of time the employee will be terminated. The type of employer that my three employees work at is a security company. The security company has hired all three as security officers and upon hiring they were informed of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s rules and the grievances that are imposed if the rules are not followed. All three employees have acknowledged the rules, and have signed a document stating that they understand the rules and the disciplinary actions taken if they break the rules. John, an officer at the security company, has never had any disciplinary actions against him since he started working for the company and has been a great employee thus far. John was involved in an incident while on duty with the company patrol vehicle. He has had an accident in the patrol vehicle and has run into a parked car while patrolling the parking lot. It is mandatory that if an employee is involved in an accident with a company vehicle while on duty a drug test is taken and if the drug test shows that John was under the influence (which he was) then that is grounds for immediate termination of his employment. John knows that this is a clear violation of company policy and has requested his union representative. If this disciplinary grievance goes to arbitration the likely result would still be the termination of JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s employment with the security company. The reason for my considered outcome is John was under the influence of drugs while on duty. There is a no tolerance policy for drug use especially while on duty, he could have done a lot more damage and very easily could have injured an individual in the process. Bill, an officer at the security company, has had issues with his behavior and attendance since he started working for the security company three months ago. It has affected his performance on the job and he has had two disciplinary actions against him in three months time. Company policy states that if an employee has three disciplinary actions in a 90 day period that is grounds for termination. Bill has just showed up late again for work and this will be his third grievance for the 90 day period. Bill admits his tardiness and swears that he will not be late again if he is given another chance to improve his attendance. Bill goes to arbitration and the likely result of the arbitration will be that Bill, the employer, and union will draw up a last chance agreement (LCA) for Bill to sign and abide by for a specific length of time. If Bill violates that agreement then it is automatic grounds for termination of his employment at the security company. The reason for my considered outcome of this scenario is because this is the most realistic way a company would handle this kind of disciplinary problem with an employee. Usually if an employee has had three disciplinary actions in a 90 day period that shows a pattern of undesired work behavior and the employer is going to want a last chance agreement to put an end to the undesired behavior. Bob, an officer at the security company, has been employed by the company for almost two years. Bob had a disciplinary action against him the second month of his employment with the security company. The infraction was a complaint of sexual harassment against one of his female co-workers at a previous job site. The complaint was investigated and Bob admitted to saying some inappropriate comments to his co-worker. The security company has a strict no tolerance policy on sexual harassment, but because Bob has admitted his wrong doing and the co-worker accepted his apology, Bob was permitted to stay employed with the security company and was put on a last chance agreement which he completed with no further issues. My considered outcome for this scenario was a bit light considering what BobÃ¢â¬â¢s disciplinary action was for. The reason I considered giving Bob a second chance is that he acknowledged what he had done wrong and apologized to the co-worker that he had offended. Bob completed his last chance agreement he had made and has not had any other grievances since then. Bob probably did not think what he had said to his fellow co-worker would offend her like it did, and because it did he watches what he says and talks about while at work so he does not make the same mistake twice. Reference Fossum, J. A. (2009). Labor Relations (10th ed. ). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Irwin.
Monday, January 6, 2020
The Comedy of Hamlet Shakespearean plays are often known for their outstanding entertainment and classic comic conflict. In his masterwork, Hamlet, Shakespeare uses these aspects to serve his thematic purpose. He has used comedy throughout many of his historic plays, but in this play, comedy is the drawing point that makes it fun and entertaining, yet clear and intuitive. Generally, his tragedies are not seen as comical, but in reality, they are full of humor. However, these comic elements donÃ¢â¬â¢t simply serve to relieve tension; they have much significance to the play itself. The characters of Hamlet, Polonius, Osric, and the Gravediggers, prove to be very influential characters, and throughout the play, they are the individuals thatÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦OsricÃ¢â¬â¢s role during the play was to enlighten the intensity in the room and use humor to create a positive atmosphere. As courtier to the king, Osric was not necessarily one of the most influential characters, but he did play a n important role as a servant and Ã¢â¬Å"braggart soldierÃ¢â¬ (Draudt, 2002). His character allowed a more powerful character (Hamlet), to Ã¢â¬Å"not only make fun of [his] diction, but also deliberately baffle and confuse [him] and thus expose [his] slow witsÃ¢â¬ (Draudt, 2002). Throughout Act V, Osric isnÃ¢â¬â¢t usually the one to offer the humor, but the humor is revolved around him. This type of comedy reflects the meaning of his social class, and as Hamlet ridicules him, it only weakens his reputation. Nonetheless, Hamlet uses this humor to poke fun at Osric and is therefore viewed as comedy. The importance of this action is to show the ignorance of OsricÃ¢â¬â¢s character and how easily he can be manipulated by his fellow men and because it highlights his function in society and his class rank. In addition to being mocked, Osric also Ã¢â¬Å"serves as [a] foil to the hero (Hamlet), contrasting with [his] genuine witÃ¢â¬ ¦ [and] honestyÃ¢â¬ (Draudt, 2002). As a foil, Osric is the complete opposite of Hamlet, and that can be seen by the way Hamlet treats Osric. This reveals to the audience the differencesShow MoreRelated The Comedy of Hamlet Essay1191 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesthe use of comic relief best contrast the tragedy of Hamlet? In great works of literature a comic relief is used as contrast to a serious scene to intensify the overall tragic nature of the play or to relieve tension. As illustrated in ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s tragedy Hamlet, intense scenes are joined with characterÃ¢â¬â¢s banter and vacuous actions as to add a comic relief. In Hamlet, Polonius acts as a comic relief by his dull and windy personality, Hamlet uses his intelligence and his negativity toward the kingRead MoreHamlet : A Tragic Comedy1828 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pages Hamlet: A Tragic Comedy William Shakespeare once said that Ã¢â¬Å"brevity is the soul of wit.Ã¢â¬ This is heavily evident in regards to Hamlet and all of his short, witty comments throughout the play. In Act I Scene II Hamlet s wit comes out in full force during a discussion with his mother, Gertrude, and his uncle/stepfather, Claudius, with HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s very first words in the play: Ã¢â¬Å"A little more than kin, and less than kind!Ã¢â¬ (Meyer, pg 1610) WIth this initial first line, he satirically assaults ClaudiusÃ¢â¬â¢Read MoreHamlet As A Comedy, Witness The Dark Humor1477 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesWhile Hamlet is considered a tragedy the humor that is displayed can change it from a tragedy to a tragi-comedy. Hamlet has been called one of William ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s greatest works (Draudt, 85). Death is sad but the dark humor gives it a different satire to the event. The language of the play is used to create comedy with wit that is meant to be pleasing to the audience and define what kind of characters are in the play. Hamlet the person plays many parts the clown, the fool and the madman. HamletRead MoreEssay on Compare and Contrast Comedy and Tragedy914 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesCompare and Contrast Comedy and Tragedy In a comparison of comedy and tragedy, I will begin by looking at narrative. The narration in a comedy often involves union and togetherness as we see in the marriage scene at the end of Midsummers Night Dream. William Hazlitt tells us that one can also expect incongruities, misunderstandings, and contradictions. I am reminded of the play The Importance of Being Ernest and the humor by way of mistaken identity. Sigmund Freud tells us to expect excessRead More tragoed Metamorphosis of the Tragedy in Oedipus Rex, Hamlet, and Desire Under the Elms736 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesMetamorphosis of the Tragedy in Oedipus Rex, Hamlet, and Desire Under the Elms Tragedy is considered by many to be the greatest of the genres. Often something goes wrong and exposes something great. Characters generally have more depth as evidenced by Hamlet. Tragedy shows up in the great periods of history: Classical Greece, Renaissance, and the early 20th century. It is a far more complex genre than comedy or romance. It teaches people to think since the storylines never have a simpleRead More Comic Relief Of Hamlet Essay examples1404 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages A Portrayal of Humor Within the Tragedy of Hamlet How does humor factor into a tragedy? Shakespeare knew the answer to this question and acted upon it quite frequently. Shakespeare has been known to write comedies and tragedies both but this does not qualify him at to not incorporate a little of each into each other. In the work of Hamlet there are many occasions where Shakespeare uses it for different effects. The main reason for the presence of humor within a tragedy is to keep the reader interestedRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare s Romeo And Juliet, King Lear, And A Midsummer s Night Dream1037 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe Bard of Avon, commonly known as William Shakespeare is one of the best known playwrights in the (Video). A few of his most famous plays include Hamlet, Romeo and Juliet, King Lear, and A MidsummerÃ¢â¬â¢s Night Dream (McArthur). Although he was popular during his time, ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s influence continued to grow after his death and today he well known around the world. He added 2,000 words to the English diction ary and he is the 2nd most quoted after the Bible (Video). Shakespeare is one of the mostRead MoreEssay on Hamlet and Tragedy524 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesHamlet and Tragedy Hamlet: A Tragedy When you think of William Shakespeare, Hamlet is the first thing most people think of, as his work. Hamlet is also a classic example of a tragedy. In all tragedies the hero suffers, and usually dies at the end. All good pieces of literature written way back when, are usually tragedies. The most important element is the amount of free will the character has. In every tragedy, the characterRead More Hamlets Sense of Humor Essay1391 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesaudience to take, William Shakespeare strategically placed several humorous scenes throughout his masterpiece, Hamlet.Ã In particular, the character of Polonius fills the role of the comic fool; he is in two essential comedic scenes, one with his own children and then one with Hamlet.Ã Shakespeares acute ability to weave humor into this very heavy play is noteworthy, as his use of comedy goes beyond merely providing much-needed comic relief.Ã Ã In fact, the rather numerous comedic scenes serveRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare s The Ghosts 1116 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageswere be powerful links between his art and the haunting of spirits (157). The richest and most complex exploitation of the theatrical capital Shakespeare found in ghosts is in Hamlet. The ghost in Hamlet is the specter of HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s recently deceased father, who claims to have been murdered by Claudius and calls upon Hamlet to avenge him (Shakespeare xi). It is important to grasp how frequently and insistently the figure of the ghost repeats all through his plays. The inquiries the figure raises